This study outlines the diversification of social and economic development in selected municipalities of Konecki Poviat of the Świętokrzyskie Voivodeship. It is based on statistical data contained in available statistical sources published by the Polish Central Statistical Office (GUS). Social and economic development has been assessed in connection with characteristics of population and economy. The period of transformation triggered numerous phenomena facilitating development of rural areas; however, it also introduced negative social and economic processes. The analysis emphasized the existence of numerous alarming demographic and social phenomena, which are the strongest on the outskirts of the Konecki Poviat. The population has dropped, partially due to declining birth rate. Moreover, in the analyzed period of time the outflow of population has decreased, presumably due to slumping urban labour market. Furthermore, in the area of this study ageing of population has been discovered as a result of decreased fertility and longer life expectancy. Social and economic transformations have considerable impact on changes in the labour market. With decreased industrial employment, the rate of unemployment has risen. Within all unemployed the most numerous group is composed of people at the age of 25-34. Unfavourable unemployment structure is preserved due to educational barriers for the population of rural areas. The second serious problem is inability to pull oneself together in the new reality. In order to overcome this negative phenomenon it is vital to find new ways of stimulating activity of the population. In the late few years the number of registered private business entities increased with the greatest group in trade and repairs. This is connected with relatively low costs of establishing such businesses. It should be noted that the development of the Konecki Poviat is diversified. Far better parameters related to description of demographic, social and economic phenomena are recorded in rural areas near towns than in municipalities located on the outskirts of the Poviat.