The influence of drip irrigation on distribution of roots of apple trees planted traditionally and in ridges

key words: apple tree, drip irrigation, root system, planting in ridges

Summary:

The experiment was carried out at the Experimental Station belonging to Wrocław University of Environmental and Life Sciences. In the autumn of 2008 the distribution of root system for nine-year-old apple trees cv. ‘Jonagored’ on M9 rootstock was evaluated. The tress were planted at spacing 3,5 x 0,5 m (5714 trees/ha) in two different ways: traditionally – into hole, and in the ridges. Plant-ing in ridges consists in setting trees on the top of the ground, fastening the trees to the rows of wire and hilling the soil up around their root system. The trees were irrigated by drip irrigation system. Irrigation was applied on the base of tensiometer indications. On purpose to determine the distribution of the roots the method of soil profile was used (Böhm, 1985). The method of soil profile was modified by taking digital photos of soil with roots, instead putting the roots by hand on transparent foil. The studies were prosecuted on three selected trees in each treatment, in vertical soil profile at 1m wide and 1,2 m deep. Planting in ridge combined with irrigation affected more intensive produc-ing of fine roots (ø < 1 mm), in comparison with control trees, planted in stan-dard way. The significant differences of these result, were noted for four soil lay-ers among six. With the exception of upper soil level (0–20 cm), the tendency to more intensively producing fine roots by irrigated trees was noted, However, the differences were not statistically significant. Drip irrigation of the trees planted in ridges had the influence on forming less number of thick roots (ø >2 mm) and their distribution only to the depth 60 cm of soil layer.

Citation:

Szewczuk A., Dereń D., Gudarowska E. 2009. The influence of drip irrigation on distribution of roots of apple trees planted traditionally and in ridges. Infrastruktura i Ekologia Terenów Wiejskich. Nr 2009/ 03