The research presented shows the conditions of agricultural production in the rural areas of Lower Silesia seen from the angle of chosen features character-istic for the functioning of agriculture and arable farming. The research covered 133 rural and rural-urban districts in dolnoslaskie voivodeship. To achieve the goal intended for this research the following features were used: soil, size struc-ture of farms, population which has their own source of income from their farms of 100 ha of farmlands, the tax on agricultural activities. The research has con-firmed a great influence of usefulness of fertile soil on the farming situation in the region. A departure from this rule is observed in the area of influence of Wroclaw
agglomeration, where, despite the high quality of farmlands the share of popula-tion which is supported by farming (a plot of farmland) expressed in 100ha is relatively low.