Septic tank – basic element of household treatment plant

key words: septic tank, operations principle, treatment efficiency


Proper wastewater management in rural areas is a difficult issue, especially that we can still see a disparity between the level of water service coverage and canalization of municipalities. The length of sewerage network increases every year, which indicates that municipalities are taking actions to improve sanitary condition. According to the National Program for Municipal Wastewater [Krajowy Program Oczyszczania Ścieków Komunalnych 2010], if the construction of sewage system is not justified, the municipality should solve the problem of waste disposal on their own. The paper presents the basic object at household sewage treatment plant - the septic tank. The septic tank is responsible primarily for the mechanical treatment of wastewater from the solids and for the initial stabilization (anaerobic) sediments. The authors paid attention to the quality of wastewater supplied to the tanks as well as wastewater delivered to the next steps of purification. The article, except study of literature includes results of several year of observations concerning parameters of wastewater after mechanical purification.
According to the literature, the effectiveness of the operation is at the level of 40-94% for the suspension, 23,3-66,0% for BOD5. The lowest reduction was observed for compounds of nitrogen and phosphorus.


Pawęska K., Strzelczyk M., Rajmund A. 2011. Septic tank – basic element of household treatment plant. Infrastruktura i Ekologia Terenów Wiejskich. Nr 2011/ 10