In medieval times the flat and marshy bottom of the Barycz valley was used to create fish ponds. The first ones were established probably as early as in the XII century by the Order of Cistercians. The human use of the valley which began caused a unique mosaic landscape, consisting of ponds, farming fields, forest complexes and human settlements to develop. Building the fish ponds was also the beginning of reclamation in the valley area. Adjusting the riverbed, building weirs on the river and the augmentation system changed the area's initial form com-pletely. The article analyzes the influence of two anthropogenic factors, agriculture and water balance, on the landscape variety of the Barycz Valley. Farming is highly responsible for shaping the environment, maintaining natural and landscape quality and protecting natural resources. The other element considered in the article are the water conditions, which define the landscape quality of the area. Their protection and rational use will determine the effectiveness of protecting the whole area.