The dominant spa-function of a small town is given attention in the study which was based on Busko-Zdrój, a town with 17 035 permanent inhabitants. Busko-Zdrój is a unique place in the southern part of Świętokrzyskie Voivodship, 50 km from Kielce and 80 km from Kraków. It was as early as in the year 1252 that brine exploitation started here. During the search for rock salt, mineral waters with medicinal properties were found. An intense development of the spa took place from 1866 - structure among others of bathrooms, spa park, hospital, boarding houses around the spa park. Besides sulphurous waters, mineral sludge from the ponds nearby were also used for therapeutical purposes. The inter- and post-war era was the period of brilliance for Busko- Zdrój. At present, sulphurous and iodide-bromide waters, as well as peloids, are used for medical treatment. There are 13 spa-hotels offering 2066 beds. Ca. 1.5 million treatments are performed every year, 800 thousand of them are sulphide baths. Diseases of circulatory and locomotor systems, rheumatic, orthopedic, neurological and dermatological disorders as well as childhood diseases (e.g. cerebral palsy) are treated in Busko-Zdrój. The spa function of this small town helped in its development and increase of its popularity. It is the major provider of workplaces for the inhabitants of the town and neighbouring villages. A zone of spa protection has been created within the administrative limits of the town which requires a special form of management from the local authorities, which take the spa priority into account. Busko-Zdrój has a high position in the region as far as the development and accessibility of spa infrastructure in the region are concerned. An attempt at analysing the relation between the spatial arrangement of the spa and permanent settlement center was made in the study.